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The Philosophy of Science

'Science' once just meant something like ‘knowledge', as opposed to ‘belief' or ‘opinion', and Philosophy meant the study of knowledge in general. But, over the centuries, as Philosophers have discovered reasonably definite bits of that knowledge, the bits have each wandered away to form their own subjects. That is how Philosophy, the 'Queen of Sciences', has given birth to astronomy, biology, chemistry, physics and all the natural sciences, it is why the greatest experts, no matter what their field, are still called Doctors of Philosophy, and it is why quite a lot of the Old Philosophies here on the Squashed pages, aren't usually called 'Philosophy' any more. The Philosophy of Science is now concerned with what science is, the method by which it reaches conclusions, and the implications of its assumptions.

See: Wikipedia

Among the Squashed Philosophers, on the subject of the Philosophy of Science:
Bacon - Advancement of Learning
Descartes - Discourse on Method
Ayer - Languge, Truth and Logic
Popper - Scientific Discovery

... and there's some odd and interesting bits among The Ancient Greeks

Specific scientific discoveries are now seen as separate subjects. Some which have been profoundly influential are:
Copernicus - The Revolutions
Galileo - Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
Newton - Principia
Darwin - The Origin of Species
Einstein's Relativity
Smith - Wealth of Nations


... and here are two books which have appeared in previous collections as works of science, but which are now usually seen as just some bloke's opinions:
Marx - The Communist Manifesto
Freud - Psychoanalysis









MORE FROM Squashed Philosophers...
THE COMPLETE TEXTS THE ABRIDGED TEXTS Aristotle - Ethics Aristotle - Politics Augustine - Confessions Ayer - Language, Truth and Logic Bacon - Advancement of Learning Bentham - Morals and Legislation Berkeley - Principles of Human Knowledge Boethius - Consolations of Philosophy Burke - Revolution in France Cicero - Friendship and Old Age Clausewitz - On War Comte - Positive Philosophy Confucius - The Analects Copernicus - The Revolutions Darwin - The Origin of Species Descartes - Discourse on Method Descartes - Meditations Einstein's Relativity Emerson - Nature Epicurus - Sovran Maxims Erasmus - Praise of Folly Euclid - Elements Freud - Psychoanalysis Galileo - Two World Systems Hayek - The Road to Serfdom Hegel - Philosophy of History Hegel - Philosophy of Religion Hobbes - Leviathan Hume - Human Understanding James - Varieties of Religious Experience Kant - Critiques of Reason Kant - Metaphysics of Morals Kierkegaard - Either Or Leibniz - Monadology Locke - Human Understanding Machiavelli - The Prince Marcus Aurelius - Meditations Marx - The Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels - German Ideology Mill - On Liberty Mill - System of Logic More - Utopia Newton - Principia Nietzsche - Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche - Genealogy of Morals Paine - Rights of Man Pascal - Thoughts Plato - The Apology Plato - The Republic Plato - The Symposium Popper - Scientific Discovery Rand - Selfishness Rousseau - Confessions Rousseau - Social Contract Sade - Philosophy in the Boudoir Sartre - Existentialism is a Humanism Schopenhauer - World as Will and Idea Smith - Wealth of Nations Spinoza - Ethics The Ancient Greeks The Aphorisms of the Philosophers Thoreau - Walden Tocqueville - America Turing - Computing Machinery Wittgenstein - Tractatus Wollstonecraft - Rights of Woman

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