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This month...

Puzzled by the current US and UK politics of the right? This lot will explain everything in just an hour or so...

Ayn Rand - The Virtue of SelfishnessHitler - Mein KampfF.A. Hayek - The Road To SerfdomNiccolò Machiavelli - The Prince



Welcome !
For more than ten years and over twenty-two million downloads Squashed Philosophers has been the favourite way of making sense of The Western Philosophers.


Our precise abridged editions are the original words in the original order, just with all the lesser bits cut out, 'Like reading the bible without all the begats'. They'll let you get to grips with a great idea in an hour or so, whether that's to prepare yourself for something bigger, or just for the joy of discovery. They're not perfect, but they do let you do something the originals can't - get for yourself a sort of grand overview of the basic universe of human ideas, without having to just take other people's word for it. You'll love them.

Or, if you've got time to read the originals, our Library of complete texts lets you search through hundreds of original books of ideas from about 1000BC almost to the present day, with a single click.


So, what is philosophy?

Philosophy, at least in the Western Way, is something to do with arguing about definitions, so, of course, philosophers have never managed to agree on a definition of Philosophy itself. It seems to be about finding ways of making the world comprehensible, the science of making sense, if you like.

It works like this; once a Philosopher manages to find a little bit of comprehensibility, the search is over, that bit stops being called 'Philosophy' and it becomes a new subject with a new name all of its own. Over the past twenty-five centuries or so that is how Philosophy, the 'Queen of Sciences', has given birth to astronomy, biology, chemistry, physics and all the natural science, as well as psychology, sociology, linguistics and the rest, it is why the greatest experts, no matter what their field, are still called Doctors of Philosophy, and it is why quite a lot of the Old Philosophies here on the Squashed pages, aren't usually called 'Philosophy' any more.

Other Resources

I like...
Modern philosophy reviews at Notre Dame UniversityThe Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyThe Internet Encyclopedia of PhilosophyFree texts from Gutenberg


Citing, Quoting and Reproducing Squashed Philosophers

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Take care when quoting from texts in the SqaPo pages - these are deep abridgements, the originals may be significantly different.

How come SqaPo hasn't got Geraldo Spodgewangle?

It takes a lot of work and research to create these abridgements. To get included, books have to be significant, famous, and asked-for. If they don't get asked for, they don't get in. Modern works are mostly excluded because their authors aren't sufficiently dead to be out of copyright. The executors of Sigmund Freud, Karl Popper, Alan Turing and others have kindly recognised the value of Squashed Philosophers and donated use of their copyright material, for which I'm very grateful, but other estates want money, and I've already had to pay Ludwig Wittgenstein £80.
And, yes, several of the books here are dangerous or rubbish. Or both. But I'm with John Stuart on this one; best to have them out in the open (and easy to read) so everyone can see how bad they actually are.

About Glyn and the Squashed Philosophers...


Glyn with the Sadhus of The Pashupatinath, Nepal

Squashed Philosophers is entirely my fault - Glyn Hughes of Derbyshire in England. Contact me at glynhughes@btinternet.com. Complaints are especially welcome.
I do keep getting asked if, having spent so long dissecting all those wise tomes in such detail, I haven't stumbled upon some magnificent all-embracing solution to the Problems of Philosophy and the World. Well, there is this: Glyn on Human Nature, which I think you'll find highly entertaining.

We're famous...

The SqaPo Website has repeatedly been subject to serious, targeted, cyber attack. Are mad fundamentalists or wicked States attempting to destroy this grand disseminator of truth and enquiry? Or just geeks with too much spare time. Know anythin'? Drop me a line


MORE FROM Squashed Philosophers...
THE COMPLETE TEXTS THE ABRIDGED TEXTS Aristotle - Ethics Aristotle - Politics Augustine - Confessions Ayer - Language, Truth and Logic Bacon - Advancement of Learning Bentham - Morals and Legislation Berkeley - Principles of Human Knowledge Boethius - Consolations of Philosophy Burke - Revolution in France Cicero - Friendship and Old Age Clausewitz - On War Comte - Positive Philosophy Confucius - The Analects Copernicus - The Revolutions Darwin - The Origin of Species Descartes - Discourse on Method Descartes - Meditations Einstein's Relativity Emerson - Nature Epicurus - Sovran Maxims Erasmus - Praise of Folly Euclid - Elements Freud - Psychoanalysis Galileo - Two World Systems Hayek - The Road to Serfdom Hegel - Philosophy of History Hegel - Philosophy of Religion Hobbes - Leviathan Hume - Human Understanding James - Varieties of Religious Experience Kant - Critiques of Reason Kant - Metaphysics of Morals Kierkegaard - Either Or Leibniz - Monadology Locke - Human Understanding Machiavelli - The Prince Marcus Aurelius - Meditations Marx - The Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels - German Ideology Mill - On Liberty Mill - System of Logic More - Utopia Newton - Principia Nietzsche - Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche - Genealogy of Morals Paine - Rights of Man Pascal - Thoughts Plato - The Apology Plato - The Republic Plato - The Symposium Popper - Scientific Discovery Rand - Selfishness Rousseau - Confessions Rousseau - Social Contract Sade - Philosophy in the Boudoir Sartre - Existentialism is a Humanism Schopenhauer - World as Will and Idea Smith - Wealth of Nations Spinoza - Ethics The Ancient Greeks The Aphorisms of the Philosophers Thoreau - Walden Tocqueville - America Turing - Computing Machinery Wittgenstein - Tractatus Wollstonecraft - Rights of Woman

   glyn@sqapo.com


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